Emotional responding following experimental manipulation of facial electromyographic activity. On noticing the bear, her heartbeat increases, her body secretes adrenaline epinephrine , her face tenses in fear, and she runs away. However, it is unresolved whether and how inhibiting facial expressions might weaken emotional experience. The result is called the R-Index. Is it sensory feedback from the facial muscles and skin, unmediated by thinking, that affects emotional experience, as James, Darwin, Tomkins, and Izard have suggested? This replicability analysis is limited to the pen-in-mouth paradigm. In The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals , Darwin claimed that freely expressing an emotion would intensify its experience, whereas repressing or dampening the expression of an emotion would tend to reduce its effects.
After each video clip, participants completed a series of self-report measures, a majority of which were non-emotional filler questions, and one of which was to provide ratings of emotional experience as a result of the video on the dimension of valence how positive or negative a person felt. Social presence, facial feedback, and emotion. There have been two main approaches to examining how changes to facial expression can modulate emotional responses. Contracting muscles involved in facial expressions e. Participants were told that they would be assigned to perform two tasks that were randomly chosen from a wide range of possible tasks; however, the same tasks were actually assigned to all participants. Facial efference and the experience of emotion.
No reason to smile – Another modern psychology classic has failed to replicate – Research Digest
Enhanced neural activity in response to dynamic facial expressions of emotion: All participants had normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity. Effects of rumination and distraction on angry mood. The facial feedback hypothesis states that facial movement can influence emotional experience. Participants could also specify strategies not listed. Following those findings, a number of researchers Blairy et al.
Smeets  has shown that the facial feedback hypothesis does not hold for people with autism spectrum disorders ASD ; that is, "individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do". Facial Feedback Hypotheses Strack, R. The current data support the following: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47 , — Using a method similar to that used by Bush et al.